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color.maximum is 'maximum

color.maximum is 'maximum data value permitted by data format'.
In some cases, real maximum is smaller.
There is color.data_maximum field, but it is filled /based on real data/ on raw2image (or dcraw_process) stage, so not available just after unpack().

In your example you compare raw data maximum (so, data range of raw data) with processed values.
This is not correct, because output data are scaled to use full data range (16 bit).

-- Alex Tutubalin @LibRaw LLC